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PROJECT 75 | IAS Study Material

project 75


The Indian Navy is set to commission INS Vela, on November 25, 2021, which is the fourth stealth Scorpene-class submarine under Project 75 or Project 75 I.


What is Project-75?

  • The Project 75I-class submarine is a follow-on of the Project 75 Kalvari-class submarine for the Indian Navy.
  • It was known to have two separate series of submarine building lines – codenamed Project 75 and Project 75I — in collaboration with foreign entities.
  • Under this project, the Indian Navy intends to acquire six diesel-electric submarines, which will also feature advanced air-independent propulsion systems.
  • This is for enabling them to stay submerged for longer duration and substantially increase their operational range.


The Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) is manufacturing six Scorpene submarines with technical assistance from the Naval Group of France.


MDL is a defense public sector undertaking shipyard under the Ministry of Defence

Scorpene Class Submarine:

  • The submarines in the Project-75 I Scorpene Class are powered by diesel-electric propulsion systems.
  • Scorpene is one of the most sophisticated submarines, capable of undertaking multifarious missions including anti-surface ship warfare, anti-submarine warfare, intelligence gathering, mine laying, and area surveillance.
  • The Scorpene class is the Navy’s first modern conventional submarine series in almost two decades since INS Sindhushastra, procured from Russia in July 2000.

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Strategic importance of these submarines

  • India currently operates one submarine each in nuclear-powered Classes of Chakra and Arihant and in addition to 14 submarines belonging to three classes of Diesel Electric category — Kalvari, Shishumar and Sindhughosh, some of which are ageing.
  • The nuclear powered and diesel-electric submarines have their designated roles in the Carrier Battle Groups, which are formations of ships and submarines with Aircraft Carriers at the lead role.
  • Currently, India has less number of submarines than what is required with some more of those from both types being at various stages of construction.

Back 2 Basics: Classes of Submarines in India

  • In maritime terms, a class of ships is a group of vessels which have the same make, purpose and displacement.
  • In the Navy and Coast Guard in India, the ships belonging to a particular class are named in a specific manner.
  • Many times the names have the same first letters, prefixes, similar meanings or the names belong to a particular type of words for example names of cities, persons, mythological concepts, animals, rivers, mountains, weapons, etc.
  • The class is generally named after the first vessel in the category. In some cases, a particular class of vessels takes their names from an earlier class of vessels which are now decommissioned.
  • Like Kalvari – which means Tiger Shark, Vagir has been named after a Sand Fish, a predatory marine species.
  • Khanderi has been named after an Island Fort built by Chhatrapati Shivaji, which played a key role in his Navy.
  • Karanj has also been named after an Island located South of Mumbai.

Six submarine names are

  1. INS Kalavari
  2. INS Khanderi 
  3. INS Kharanj.
  4. INS Vela
  5.  INS Vagir
  6. INS Vagsheer

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